Gaza City in Palestine
Gaza City in Palestine is one of the most important cities, as it is one the oldest cities in history.
Moreover, It is a coastal city and the largest city in the Gaza Strip.
It was occupied by many invaders such as the Pharaohs, Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Ottomans, English, and others that formed its ancient history and rich culture.
Do you know how Gaza City was established?
The Canaanites founded the city in the fifteenth century B.C.
What does “Gaza” mean?
- The reason for the name of Gaza City in Palestine is due to its meaning which is distinctive or competent with certain qualities.
- The invaders called it different names such as:
First: The Canaanites called it “Hazati”
Second: The pharaohs called it “Ghazato”
Third: The Assyrians and Greeks called it (Azzati) and (Vaza).
Fourth: The Hebrews called it (Uzzah).
Fifthly: The Crusaders called her (Gadders).
Sixth: The Turks did not change its Arabic name (Gaza).
Seventh: The British did not change its name, but they changed it in their Gaza dialect.
Eighth: Napoleon described it as “the gateway to Asia and the gateway to Africa”.
What is the geographical location of Gaza?
Gaza is located in the northern Gaza Strip, at the southern end of the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea.
North and East: The Israeli Occupation.
Northwest: The Mediterranean sea.
It covers an area of 365 km²
How is the weather in Gaza?
The weather is it is intense heat, accompanied by strong sunlight, while winter is moderately hot
- In summer, the average daytime temperature reaches its peak in August, 23.1 degrees.
- In winter: The weather is warm and the lowest temperature is 9.8 degrees in January.
What is the currency of Gaza?
- The main currency in Palestine is the Jordanian dinar and the Israeli shekel due to the Israeli occupation.
- In the past, the currency was the Palestinian pound, which came instead of the Egyptian pound.
What is the national language of Gaza?
- Its native residents speak the Arabic language with a local Palestinian dialect similar to the dialects of other Gulf countries as well.
What is the main traditional food in Gaza?
- There are many traditional foods such as Constantine cheese tagine, Al-Shakhsoukha, Al-Qaryosh, Al-Mashloush Constantine, and Constantinople yellow Shbah.
What are the kinds of transportation available in Gaza?
There are many types of transportation such as:
- Gaza port:
However, after the occupation, Palestinian use it for hunting only.
- Land roads such as the Beit Hanoun crossing in the north of the Gaza Strip to the Rafah crossing in the south of the Gaza Strip.
The population of Gaza is about 590,481 according to Statistics for the year 2017.
Brief History of Gaza City in Palestine
Gaza City is one of the oldest cities in the world.
Importance of the location of Gaza City in Palestine:
It gained great importance due to its sensitive geographical location at the meeting point of the continents of Asia and Africa, which gave it many advantages such as:
- A superior strategic and military importance, as it is the front line for the defense of Palestine, and indeed all of the Levant to the south.
- In addition, Its advanced location had a great role in defending the Egyptian depth in its northeast.
- It made it the battlefield for most of the empires in the ancient and modern world, Pharaonic, Assyrian, Persian, Greek, Roman, then Crusader, and in the First World War.
- Moreover, The location of Gaza City at the climactic dividing line made it occupy the boundary position between the desert in the south and the Mediterranean climate in the north.
- therefore it is between two contrasting regions, which gave it the role of a vibrant commercial “market” with global products. And cold since ancient times.
Gates of Old Gaza City in Palestine:
- Old Gaza used to occupy an area of about one square kilometer on this hill.
- Moreover, It is surrounded by a great wall that had several gates on its four sides.
- The most important of which were:
- First, “Bab al-Bahr” or “Mimas Gate” relative to its port to the west.
- Second, “Bab Ashkelon” to the north.
- Third, “Bab al-Khalil” To the east.
- Fourth, “Bab ad-Durb”, the door to Deir al-Rum, or Darom, to the south.
- These names underwent a lot of change according to the difference and change of time and empires, and these doors closed at sunset, making them invulnerable to their enemies.
The economy in Gaza City:
The economy of Gaza City depends on:
- The trade.
- The agriculture.
1. Trading of Gaza City in Palestine
Gaza played a prominent role as a seaport and traffic trading base.
The Ottoman period
- It began to wither at the end of the Ottoman period.
- Gaza exported $ 1.5 million worth of wheat, barley, corn, dates, sesame, skins, and poultry in the year 1905 AD through its port.
- In addition, it used to import various goods with a value that reached (750) thousand dollars, thus achieving a trade balance in its favor in that year only.
- It seems that the ports of Jaffa and Haifa had a negative impact on the port of Gaza later, which caused the economic stalemate gradually.
After the Israeli occupation
- The Gaza port completely lost its role and is still suspended until now.
- Gaza currently relies on its trade with Egypt and Israel only to import and export some industries and agricultural products.
- The residents of Gaza in the past paid attention to the commercial markets, so they set up markets and shops to display their goods.
- Among the most markets is the Qaysariyya market, which is still standing now, and testifies to history.
- The Qaysariyya market is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- Exported Citrus and flowers to countries around the world several times, despite Israeli harassment and attempts to sabotage the export business.
- The Gaza municipality has also contributed to encouraging trade, by providing citizens with modern, healthy, and organized markets, including the popular Yarmouk market, which is the first central market in the city when it comes into operation.
Exports and Imports in Gaza City in Palestine
- They established International Airport, which the occupation destroyed.
- Trade was about to revive after its opening, while Palestinian and international attempts to start building the port.
- These attempts collided with Israel’s procrastination and its refusal to keep imports and export confined to Israeli ports.
- The economy in Gaza also depends mainly on the fishing trade and exporting part of it.
Farming of Gaza City in Palestine
- In the past, Gaza was famous for cultivating wheat, barley, and cotton crops and exporting them to the Arab world and abroad.
- In Gaza now there are many crops: potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers, fruits, grapes, strawberries, figs, melons, and melons.
- Gaza has the finest types of citrus fruits, such as lemons and oranges, grown, and some people rely on them to feed bees.
Irrigation in Gaza city in Palestine
- Irrigation in Gaza City depends on well water, and seawater desalination, municipalities in the Gaza Strip carried out studies.
- The economy in Gaza also depends to a large extent on the cultivation and export of flowers to various countries of the world.
- Some residents of the Gaza Strip currently raise sheep and livestock and depend on them to run their lives, which also contributes to some light local industries.
- The Gaza municipality has contributed to the establishment of a modern and sophisticated slaughterhouse that follows the latest health and practical laws and operates automatically according to the latest systems and methods in the world, and is one of the most advanced slaughterhouses in the Middle East.
- Among the main agricultural products such as citrus fruits, olives, dates, flowers, strawberries, and other varieties of vegetables and fruits.
Industry of Gaza City in Palestine
- Gaza City was famous for its many light industries.
- Some industries depend on which depended on agriculture as basic raw material, such as the olive press industry, and soap which depends on oil as raw material.
- the pottery industry is one of the oldest Palestinian industries for which the city is famous, as well as the manufacture of spinning, embroidery, and heritage rugs from wool Cattle, weaving, bamboo furniture, and stained-glass making.
- The main industrial production in Gaza is food products, plastics, construction materials, furniture, textiles, clothing, and heritage industries, such as pottery, bamboo furniture, rugs, stained glass, embroidery, and fishing.
The most prominent historical and tourist attractions in Gaza City in Palestine
Al-Omari Great Mosque
- The Al-Omari Mosque is the oldest mosque in Gaza City in Palestine.
- It is located in the center of “Old Gaza” near the old market.
- Moreover, It has an area of 4,100 square meters, and its courtyard area is 1,190 square meters.
- It holds 38 columns of beautiful and sturdy construction marble, which reflects in its beauty and splendor with the ingenuity of ancient architecture in Gaza City in Palestine.
- In addition, It is the church established by the Bishop of Gaza Porphyrios at the expense of Queen Afthoxia.
- Gaza was conquered during the days of Caliph Omar Ibn Al-Khattab, it made this church a mosque.
- They called it Al-Omari Mosque in reference to the Caliph Umar.
- Lajin, the Sultan of the Mamelukes, built a door and minaret for him in 697 AH / 1281 AD.
- Al-Nasir Muhammad and Omar during the Ottoman era expanded it.
- The First World destroyed the greater part of it and its minaret collapsed.
- The Supreme Islamic Council renewed the mosque’s building in the year 1345 AH / 1926 CE and rebuilt it in a manner that surpassed its previous form.
- The advantage of Omari mosque features the huge library where there are many manuscripts in various sciences and the arts, due to this genesis library to Baybars Bunduqdari, and its name was Zahir Baybars Library “·
- Omari Mosque library contains one hundred and thirty – two manuscripts, between a large workbook message Small, and the oldest manuscript copy dates back to 920 AH.
Al-Sayed Hashem Mosque
- The mosque is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood, “the old city of Gaza,”.
- It is one of the most beautiful and largest of Gaza’s ancient mosques.
- It has an open dish surrounded by four shades, the largest of which is the qibla canopy.
- He died in Gaza during his summer business trip.
- Mamluks built the Mosque, Sultan Abdul Hamid renewed it in 1850 AD.
- This mosque is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- The building is an old mosque in the Al-Daraj neighborhood, that dates back to the ninth century.
- Moreover, It became famous for him, and when he died, they buried him in a large cave under an iwan, in his square.
Al-Bardbakia Court Mosque
- It is located in the Shujaiya neighborhood and dates back to the ninth century.
- Prince Burdabek Al-Dudar this building as a school in 859 AH during the days of King Al-Ashraf Abu Al-Nasr.
- Later, they transferred it to a court of justice.
- This Market is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- It is adjacent to the southern wall of the Great Omari Mosque.
- The building of the market dates back to the Mamluk era.
- It consists of a street covered with a pointed vault.
- On both sides of this street are small shops with intersecting cellars called the Qaysariyya market or the gold market relative to the gold trade in it.
The Pasha Palace, Sabil al-Sultan
- This building is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- It consists of two floors.
- The buildings of this palace date back to the Mamluk era.
- It was the seat of the deputy of Gaza in the Mamluk and Ottoman eras.
The Path of Sultan Abdul Hamid
- Bahram Bey bin Mustafa Pasha established it in the Ottoman era in the 16th century AD.
- is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- Rifaat Bey renewed it.
- Therefore, during the reign of Sultan Abdul Hamid II called it the Rifaiya Sabil and renewed it in 1318 AH, so they called it the Sabil of Sultan Abdul Hamid.
- It is a Dakhla preceded by a tapered arch on both sides of the Dakhla, and the Dakhla is topped with openings that were equipped with rods to draw water from the sabil basin for water people.
The Ahmadiyya Zawiya
- It is located in the Al-Daraj neighborhood.
- It was established by the followers of Sayyid Ahmad Al-Badawi in the 6th century AH / 14AD AD, who died in Tanta in the year 657 AH / 1276 AD.
- In the courtyard of the outer corner, there is a beautiful marble tomb of the daughter of Al-Maqri, Bahadar Al-Jokandar Qatlu Khatun, who died on Rabi Thani 12, 733 AH / December 31, 1332 CE.
- It is located in the Zeitoun neighborhood.
- It is one of the wonderful examples of the Ottoman baths in Palestine, and This is the only bathroom that remains so far in Gaza City.
- The gradual transition from the hot room to the cold room was taken into account in its planning, which was roofed by a dome with round openings intertwined with colored glass that allows the sunlight to penetrate to illuminate the hall With natural light that gives the place elegance and beauty.
- in addition to the beautiful floor that is paved with marble rounds, squares, and triangles of various colors, the bathroom has recently been restored and has become more beautiful and wonderful.
The Greek Orthodox Church
- It is located in the Al-Zaytoun neighborhood.
- Its construction dates back to the beginning of the fifth century A.D.
- As for the current buildings, it dates back to the twelfth century A.D.
- This church is distinguished by the huge walls supported by marble and granite columns installed in a horizontal position to support the walls.
- In addition to the stone shoulders.
- The church was renovated in 1856 in the northeast corner of it, there is a Tomb of Saint Porphyrius, who died in the year 420 AD.
Hill of housing
It is Tal al-Sakan, located five kilometers south of Gaza City in Palestine; In the Zahraa area.
It is one of the most important archaeological sites in the Gaza governorates.
Palestinian-French scientific excavation
A joint Palestinian-French scientific excavation was carried out on this site in 1998.
Two main stages
- It showed that it had lived in two main stages:
First: the Early Bronze Age (3200-3000 BC)
Second: the Third Early Bronze Age (2650-2200 BC)
- The excavations also showed the great importance of this site in studying the civilizational history of Gaza City, and the Palestinian civilization history in general.
- It shed light on the civilizational relations between Palestine and Egypt in that early period.
- This site is a Karkari sandhill, 30 meters above sea level, characterized by immunity due to the architectural fortifications that have been established in it throughout history.
Two stages of human settlement:
- The hill witnessed two different stages of human settlement, namely: the Egyptian civilization
- Moreover, The Canaanite civilization dates back to the early Bronze Age.
- Among the most important discoveries that were found at the site, were the archaeological layers whose height ranges between (4-8 m), which provided a first glimpse of the history of the place; The number of archaeological levels in it was nine levels of human settlement.
- The hill contains the remains of local homes and facilities, the roofs of buildings built with red bricks, and the remains of mud-brick architectural walls and walls.
- The building wall system is the result of a high-class style in architecture that has no parallel in the world.
Egyptian Pharaonic discoveries
- Many archaeological discoveries dating back to the Egyptian Pharaonic civilization were found on the site.
- In addition, Egyptian-made pottery was directly imported into the Nile Valley region; Remains of Canaanite pottery that were locally made in Gaza have also been found using local clay but in the Egyptian style.
- Moreover, Hybrid pottery remains that combine Egyptian and Pharaonic antiquities, Canaanite antiquities, bathtubs, cylindrical vases, and large jars of various shapes and uses were found.
- In addition to the disclosure of bread containers that were commonly used, and seven facades for palaces, dating back to the first dynasty of the Egyptian dynasty.