The area of agricultural land in the Gaza Strip is 75.2 km2 and the border area provides
a quarter of agricultural production. Gaza agriculture was once a major source of the local economy.
Gaza is famous for growing and exporting flowers, growing crops such as barley, wheat,
and cotton and exporting them to the world.
There are also many citrus fruits that are grown, such as oranges, lemons, potatoes,
grapes, cucumbers, figs, strawberries, watermelons, melons, tomatoes.
The Gaza Strip is characterized by its different types of soils. The sand dunes, concentrated in the coastal strip of the western part, have been reclaimed large areas,
for the cultivation of citrus and vegetables;
The sedimentary sandy soils cover the eastern part, and these soils are deep in-depth and are used for growing fruits and vegetables;
The fertile alluvial soil, formed by the flow of water in the valleys, occupies an area confined
to the northeastern part and is used for the cultivation of fruits and field crops.
The annual rainfall in the Gaza Strip is estimated at 300 mm, of which the southern
region does not have 150 mm.
The most famous crops in the Gaza Strip are citrus, strawberries and olives, but with the
leveling of land by Israel, this has prevented the export of the quantities produced by the Gaza Strip as before.
Agricultural problems in the Gaza Strip
There are some factors that threaten the collapse of the Gaza agriculture sector such as
the crisis of electricity, salinization, and pollution of irrigation water which threatens the production of agricultural crops.
Official statistical data indicate that 70% of households in the Gaza Strip are food
insecure, while 93% of households in Gaza do not meet their basic needs of(According to the
Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics survey).
The Gaza Strip imports most of its food basket, but locally produced food is an important and
affordable source of food. About 19,000 people depend on Gaza agriculture, 6,000 on livestock and 3,000 on fishing.
Preventing the import of goods available within the Gaza Strip has contributed to self-
sufficiency in order to prevent high prices for a particular commodity under the law of supply and demand. According to Al Mezan Center for Human Rights, self-sufficiency agricultural products in the Gaza agriculture sector are
vegetables (96 %), Poultry (95%), olives (80%) and citrus fruits (50%).
The border area from the north to the south of the Gaza Strip, about 22,500 dunums. It is “restricted”, meaning that Israel is shooting towards those approaching the border.
Israeli aircraft are spraying agricultural lands of Gaza Strip along the border fence with herbicides with Oxeflurfen under security
pretexts that contribute to killing or preventing the germination of newly planted seeds
In addition, Israel worked to level agricultural lands on Gaza Strip borders, which represents
about 35% of the area planted in the Gaza Strip, equivalent to a quarter of agricultural production.
In cases of tension, Palestinian Farmers are free from any agricultural activity, which
causes the Gaza agricultural sector to suffer great losses.
Israeli restrictions on the fishing sector have caused the average decline in fisheries in the
Gaza Strip from 365 metric tons to 193 metric tons, and the loss of about 47% of fisheries annually.
The electricity crisis has been negatively reflected in the systematic irrigation programs for agricultural crops and their production. In addition, the growing lack of access to quality water resources increased the weakening of
the agricultural sector in the Gaza Strip.